Water supply of deep space missions


The continuous supply of water is an essential factor of space missions since water is consumed by astronauts and they use it for other purposes too. These can be for example growing plants in the space and protection against cosmic radiation. Water can be demolished into oxygen and hydrogen by electrolysis to provide the continuous oxygen supply of the astronauts while hydrogen can be used as refrigerant, for energy production in fuel cells or in ion engines as fuel. Furthermore, burned with oxygen, hydrogen can provide powerful thrust in rocket engines as well.

However, water supply to space missions as a payload mass of current carrier rocket is too expensive for the universal use of water in a large quantity. Because of this, a C-5M Super Galaxy transport aircraft should be transformed in a research and development program so that a railgun would be installed into the aircraft with the supercapacitors providing power for firing.

Charging the supercapacitors would be provided by separate generators attachable to the aircraft’ jet engines. As a result of this, after shooting with the railgun, the aircraft do not have to land, since the supercapacitors are rechargeable during circulation at a high altitude.

The railgun could launch such a solid-propellant rocket from the modified nose of the aircraft, which is capable of putting tens of kilograms of payload mass into the low Earth orbit. These water carrying rockets could be small, simple and inexpensive ballistic rockets, without an own guidance system. After spending a short period of time in space, these would burn while returning into the Earth’s atmosphere, but before this could happen, a satellite designed specifically for this purpose would catch and drain these rockets on the low Earth orbit, with the help of its robotic arm.

This catching satellite would be able to maneuver by electrolysis of the drained water, using the oxygen and the hydrogen as rocket propellant, whether it's catching these rockets moving on a ballistic orbit, docking to the International Space Station (ISS), or about reaching the escape velocity and moving on the lunar orbit to the Lunar Orbital Platform-Gateway (LOP-G).

The catching satellite could collect water from the rockets for months on the low Earth orbit, before transporting it to the ISS or to the LOP-G.

The C-5M Super Galaxy with its huge load capacity and cargo area would be ideal for carrying the railgun, which would be a much more ideal solution than launching rockets from the Earth’s surface. Because the C-5M would launch the rockets from a high altitude, the lower resistance of the rarer atmosphere and the acceleration provided by the railgun would give the rockets a multiple Mach initial speed, and plus the speed of the launched rockets would be increased with the speed of the aircraft.

Since the catching satellite will orbit around the Earth about every ninety minutes waiting for newer and newer water carrying rockets, a rocket can be launched from the aircraft for each circle of the catching satellite. The periods between launching could be used for charging the supercapacitors. The efficiency can be maximized, if the crew on the aircraft is shift working, the fuel of the aircraft is refillable from a tanker aircraft, in the cargo area of the aircraft even a dozen rockets can be placed securely, and the launching with the railgun do not require immediate maintenance.

Made in Tibet


Increasing the living standard of the population of Tibet is not only about eliminating poverty, since the economic power of the Tibetan people fundamentally determines their ability to enforce their interests from freedom through environment protection to autonomy.

However, the Tibetan development program of China is primarily about the extension of Chinese interests and about validating them at whatever cost, from education through transport to mining, therefore, with the Chinese economic development programs, the Tibetan people actually do not move forward at all.

In my opinion, because of this, the Central Tibetan Administration should start an economic development program, which would be explicitly about mitigating poverty in Tibet and about strengthening the ability of Tibet to enforce its interests.

Within the frames of this economic development program, the Central Tibetan Administration would appoint those Tibetan companies, which would really improve the Tibetan economy by selling their products. The companies could be family-owned manufactures or even multinational companies producing industrial components. A product packaging standard would be created for the products of these companies.

This standard visualization containing Tibetan symbols could be used on the packaging of any product, ranging from scented candle through washing powder to oil filters. This packaging would make the products of the appointed companies unique and recognizable from a long distance, so standardization would make it easier for the customers to identify the products as Tibetan.

The products would get the standardized packaging in Dharamsala in order to create jobs for Tibetan refugees and make the originality of the products verifiable. So every product that repackaged according to the standards created in this economic development program would get to the global market through Dharamsala.

Unfortunately, because of the Tibetan circumstances, the Tibetan products start with a competitive disadvantage compared to the average Chinese products, hence it is harder to sell the Tibetan products on the global market due to their inevitably higher selling prices. Furthermore, the repackaging makes the costs even higher, however, using the Tibetan symbols on the packaging makes it possible that customers feeling sympathetic towards Tibet will choose the Tibetan product from two identical products. By doing that, customers can facilitate the development of the Tibetan economy and the opportunities of the Tibetan people.

So this economic development program would beyond small souvenirs and it would not even matter, whether the product made in Tibet is connected to the Tibetan cultural heritage or not. As a result, pharmaceutical, apparel and car components manufacturing companies could also join the program, if they fulfill the requirements of the Central Tibetan Administration.

Coming from its nature, there is a possibility to make an accurate list of the products taking part in the program. Because of this, retailers feeling sympathetic towards Tibet can develop some of their shelves especially for Tibetan products. In order to grab the consumers’ attention, the Central Tibetan Administration could create not only detailed product descriptions and various brochures, but also commercials related to Tibet. These would be made especially for touchscreens, that can be placed next to Tibetan products in retail stores.

Purchasing and repackaging the products of Tibetan companies, and transporting them to the global market through Dharamsala would be market-based, depending on the consumption of the given product. However, in case of bigger orders, the Central Tibetan Administration could play a liaison role towards the Tibetan companies.

Conclusion:

The standardized appearance of the verified Tibetan products on the global market would result in higher marketability for the products of common Tibetan companies, even if the quality is the same while the selling prices are higher. Through this companies, this would really develop the Tibetan economy for the sake of Tibetan people. Meanwhile in Dharamsala, a huge amount of workplaces could be created, which would provide a real living for the Tibetan refugees.