Space Range

The easily accessible near-Earth asteroids have enormous economic potential, because they could create an unlimited source of key materials, ranging from titanium through platinum to gold. However, the possible processability and industrial usage of the material of the asteroids in space still requires a lot of research and development, so before setting up the asteroid mines, delivering the metal-containing asteroids onto the Earth’s surface would be worth.

Because of this, in my opinion, an enormous, unoccupied piece of land should be marked on the Earth’s surface as a space range, into which these asteroids could slam.

The first step of the process would be choosing the appropriate near-Earth asteroids, those, which composition is ideal for economic aspects. After this, the selected asteroids would be redirected into a high Earth orbit by robot spacecrafts. The necessary technology would be based on NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission, although there would be a different method of capturing the asteroids.

In order to minimize the risk of an accident while an asteroid is redirected onto a high Earth orbit or when it slams into the marked space range, a size- and speed limit would be determined regarding the available asteroids. A possible risk factor can be for example a miscalculated entry angle or the malfunction of the robot spacecraft.

The robot spacecraft used for capturing an asteroid would approach the chosen asteroid directly and would release a thin metal net, into which the asteroid would fly. After that, by constricting the edges of the net, the robot spacecraft would fix the net on the surface of the asteroid.

This metal net would be lightweight and its structure would have only minimal load-bearing capacity, therefore, it would have no role in changing the trajectory of the asteroid. The metal net primary function would be providing the fixing of the robot spacecraft to the surface of the asteroid.

After the robot spacecraft lands on the surface of the asteroid covered by the metal net, a separate robot vehicle would detach from it. This robot vehicle would practically be a rocket engine that moves on spider legs. It would continuously connect to the robot spacecraft with a flexible pipeline, and the robot spacecraft would supply the energy and the rocket fuel for the robot vehicle through this flexible pipeline.

The robot vehicle could hold on to the metal net fixed onto the surface of the asteroid via its spider legs. As a result of this, the robot vehicle could safely move on the surface of the asteroid. Since the maximum diameter of a captured asteroid would be just a few meters, with holding on to the metal net, the robot vehicle could avoid drifting off from the surface of the asteroid in the absence of gravity.

The necessary trajectory change for redirecting the asteroid onto a high Earth orbit would be carried out by this robot vehicle’s rocket engine. Because the captured asteroid could rotate hectically along all three axes, it is possible that the robot vehicle has to use its rocket engine even half a dozen different locations on the surface of the asteroid in order to achieve the desired trajectory change. The spider legs of the robot vehicle would have wide folding treads in order to secure its stable position on the surface of the asteroid while the rocket engine is used.

Arriving on the high Earth orbit, another robot spacecraft could land on the surface of the asteroid. The second robot spacecraft would carry a dozen smaller robot vehicles, which would practically be replicas in smaller sizes of the robot vehicle of the first robot spacecraft. That is, these would also be spider-legged rocket engines, only less powerful, but in addition, these would be able to spread an ablative heat shield material such as epoxy resin to the surface of the asteroid.

Once the ablative layer is complete, the role of the smaller robot vehicles would be to serve as maneuvering thrusters until the asteroid enters the Earth's atmosphere. In this way the atmosphere entry can be planned much more precisely.

It also allows that the robot vehicle of the first robot spacecraft would not be used for the trajectory change from high Earth orbit, but as a braking rocket. Thus, the asteroid could be decelerated as much as possible before entering the Earth's atmosphere.

Since only metal-containing asteroid would be captured, its strong structure and the heat-absorbing ablative layer should be enough to withstand the air friction, so the asteroid could impact into the Earth's surface in one piece in the area of the space range. With lower velocity the impact force of the asteroid will still be high, but to an acceptable extent, and the scattered pieces of the asteroid will also be easier to find and collect.

Moon industrial site:

Immediate and significant profits are essential to the creation of this space industry, therefore, bringing small asteroids to Earth is the cheaper solution, which could create the comprehensive technologies of the near-Earth asteroids exploration and analysis, as well as the development of the robot spacecrafts to redirecting the appropriate asteroids.

Based on these would be easier to realization the processing of asteroids in space, however, using the Moon as an industrial site would be better for the second step. The Moon is safer for the astronauts in every way than the deep space, and not only small but also tens of meters in diameter asteroids can be slammed into the surface of the Moon.

A space range would be designated several thousand kilometers from the NASA's Artemis Base. This space range would be an area on the Moon that is not scientifically interesting. A dozen smaller and larger near-Earth asteroids would be redirected to this area for impact. Each asteroid impact would be continuously monitored by a satellite specifically designed for this purpose, so that the exact locations of the asteroids impacts and the locations of their scattered pieces can be accurately mapped.

Then, a relocatable robot mining station would be established in the area. This would be a partly automatic, partly remote-controlled station, which main element would be a recharging device with the NASA's Kilopower nuclear reactor. The mining activity and the collection of asteroid pieces would be done by Boston Dynamics robot dogs. Similar to the Spot with the mechanical arm, these rechargeable electric robot dogs would have a long flexible arm with replaceable head, so that the robot dogs could perform any operation from digging through cutting to loading.

Since the distance would be thousands of kilometers between the robot mining station that collecting the asteroid pieces and the Artemis Base that analyzing and processing the materials, crossing areas which are unsuitable for wheeled vehicle, the asteroid pieces would be transported by a car-sized self-driving robot dog.

This transport robot dog would be powered by radioisotope thermoelectric generators, which can provide the power supply needed for the continuous going, and the heat supply needed for the sensitive electronics. Although, due to the difficult terrain the galloping is rarely possible, but since this robot dog can going continuously twenty-four hours a day, it can be used to travel long distances.

While the robot mining station would continuously collect the pieces of asteroids, additional asteroids would be diverted to another space range thousands of kilometers away. After every asteroid piece had been collected in the first space range, the mining station would be relocated in the other space range.

Planetary defense:

Currently, Earth has no real defense against the asteroids. The NASA’s budget and technical devices only allow for a fraction of the detection of dangerous asteroids, and often just hours before those entering the atmosphere. In addition, there isn't a ready-to-use asteroid diverting technology. This will not change in the coming decades, however, the asteroid mining industry will require exactly the same infrastructure that is needed for the effective defense.

The change of the trajectory of 99942 Apophis and similar asteroids is very difficult, because only a nuclear explosion can generate enough energy to deflect an asteroid of this weight, but the nuclear explosive device cannot be detonated on the surface of the asteroid, because the debris from the high-energy nuclear explosion could be just as fatal for the Earth.

The ideal would be if the dangerous asteroid stays in one piece and no significant debris is generated around it, which would also allow that the dangerous asteroid to be approached again for another attempt if necessary, but if the detonation occurs next to the asteroid at the distance of several hundred meters, primarily only the energy from the X-rays acts on the asteroid.

Therefore, it would be worthwhile to redirect a near-Earth asteroid with a few meters in diameter to the direction of the dangerous asteroid, and the nuclear explosion would be occurs on the captured asteroid when it is only a few dozen meters away from the dangerous asteroid.

The nuclear explosive device would detonated in such a way that the material of the captured asteroid which instantly vaporized by the energy of the explosion would be directed primarily towards the dangerous asteroid. Thereby, the captured asteroid would impact to the surface of the dangerous asteroid as a shock wave of high-pressure gas, allowing a greater percentage of the energy from the explosion to act on the dangerous asteroid.

(The first version of this concept was written in March 2015.)

Airborne air defence

Since cheap drones are accessible to anyone and can be used for arbitrary purposes, nowadays the continuous monitoring of the airspace and its protection in case of necessity are much more than the military operations and the everyday surveillance of civil aviation. Because of the risks caused by the drones, the separate protection of the airspace of practically every outdoor public mass gathering has become necessary, whether it is a sport, political or cultural event.

Although there are many current methods of catching, destroying drones or just of making them dysfunctional, none of the current methods can provide perfect protection. For example, the range of the guns shooting movement-interfering nets is minimal, and the opportunities of drones carrying catching-nets are also limited by the size and weight of the drone to be caught. The jamming of the radio signals does not restrict the visual field tracking based on pre-set parameters. In addition, laser weapon systems are expensive and their efficiency depends on the weather, not to mention that a slow drone can easily pull a curtain of smoke around it to scattering the laser beams.

Because of these things, the development of such a device would be worth, which could provide efficient protection in any situation by combining the existing methods. This new type drone-catching device would be a special, smaller variant of the BGM-109 Tomahawk subsonic cruise missile.

Drone-catching cruise missile:

The drone catching variant of the Tomahawk cruise missile would be constructed with a shorter fuselage and of course it would not carry any explosives. As a result of this, its weight, engine performance and the capacity of its fuel tank can be smaller, which would minimize its range, but this device does not have to be able to fly hundreds of kilometers to its target.

The launch of these drone-catching cruise missiles would be carried out from a remote-controlled hybrid airship. This hybrid airship would carry the radar system responsible for monitoring the airspace and guiding the cruise missiles to their destination. In addition, its panoramic camera systems facing the surface of the Earth would also be able to carry out the visual identification and tracking of the drones.

The remote-controlled hybrid airship is an ideal platform for this purpose since it can hover in one place even for days above a public event, and its vision is not disturbed by landmarks.

After the identification of a drone to be caught, a drone-catching cruise missile launched from the hybrid airship can reach its target in seconds owing to its jet engine. During the approach, the hybrid airship can continuously jamming the radio communication of the target, so that it cannot perform unpredictable detouring maneuvers.

About a hundred meters close to the target, the case on the nose of the cruise missile would open like petals, making the opening of a cone-shaped metal net possible. The size of this net would be several square meters and it would open from the nose of the cruise missile. The weave of this metal net would be dense enough to grab the drone to be caught for sure, but it would be scarce enough not to disturb the aerodynamics of the drone-catching cruise missile disastrously.

With this cone-shaped metal net would the cruise missile bump into the drone to be caught. At the moment of the collision, from the fuselage of the cruise missile, a thick protective cover would be blown up around the cruise missile and the drone caught with the metal net. This blown up thick protective cover would have the shape of a regular airship, and would be blown up in a few seconds with the high pressure helium stored in the cruise missile.

This airship-shaped protective cover would not only provide the aerodynamic stability, so that the drone-catching cruise missile would remain able to fly, but it would prevent the captured drone from being able to drop anything. And the airship-shaped protective cover would be open on its nose and on its back, so that the air supply of the jet engine and with that the required speed to having enough buoyancy would remain provided.

The maneuvering ability of the cruise missile would be provided from that point by blown up movable wing plates belonging to the airship-shaped protective cover. Although, the maneuvering ability of the cruise missile would be reduced significantly, but it would still have enough to reach its landing point, which should ideally be a large grassy field, where it could land on its belly. The material of the protective cover would be strong enough to bear the emerging friction.

Simplified diagram about the operation:

1. Airspace-controlling remote-controlled hybrid airship.

2. Radiolocator under the fuselage.

3. Drone-catching subsonic cruise missile. 

4. The cruise missile would be launched from the hybrid airship.

5. The drone to be caught.

6. After the collision with the drone, the cruise missile would try to stabilize its flight altitude.

7. The drone-catching cruise missile with the already completely blown up airship-shaped protective cover.

8. The cruise missile would land as an airship.

(The first version of this concept was written in March 2018.)

The marine depot of Fukushima

At the Fukushima nuclear power plant, since the accident in 2011, rainwater and the cooling water leaking into the ground have been continuously collected into storage tanks. However, the amount of these waters have become so significant that due to the limitations of the storing capacity, pouring these waters into the sea after cleaning has become necessary.

Hence the cleaning procedure is not perfect, the treated water still means health risks, and since decommissioning of the reactors still points into the distant future, pouring the groundwater contaminated with radiation into the sea will remain necessary for the next few decades.

That is why pumping the already treated but still radiation contaminated water into a special storage tank created in the sea would be worthwhile, until the decommissioning of the reactors takes place, and no more water contaminated with radiation would be created. Thereby that the treatment capacity could be used to decontaminate the already existing water contaminated with radiation to a greater extent, reducing the health risks occurring by pouring the contaminated water into the sea.

This marine depot should be imagined like a reservoir in the middle of the sea, and the depot would be built in the sea onto a suitable location of the seabed.

Simplified structural diagram:

1. The floodable stands of the marine depot. By letting water into the stands of the depot, the structure could be sunk into the horizontally dredged seabed. Although the structural build of the depot would be similar to a relocatable rig, but the structure of its platform would be much more simple than a rig platform. It would basically help the construction of the depot, for example with enormous heavy-duty cranes.

2. Sea water in the floodable stands. This would stabilize the position of the marine depot on the seabed until its construction is finished.

3. The parts of the dams. The parts between the stands of the marine depot would be closed in a similar way to a mobile flood protection dam. The enormous cuboid-shaped ferroconcrete parts could horizontally slip onto each other by placing them into the vertical grooves on the side of the stands of the marine depot. These ferroconcrete elements could be produced on the mainland, and after it these can be transported to the marine depot by a cargo ship, where with the help of platform cranes those could be moved and slip onto their location.

4. Protective sea water. The ferroconcrete elements placed onto each other would stretch from the seabed to the platform, so that a closed structure depot could be created. The top of it would be the platform itself. Double ferroconcrete elements would be placed on every side, because the sea water between the parallel walls would provide an additional layer of protection between the stored radiation contaminated water and the sea.

5. Treated water in the marine depot. It would be still hazardous and radiation contaminated.


If the marine depot will be built right next to the nuclear power plant of Fukushima, then between the mainland storage tanks and the marine depot, a pipeline running on seabed could also be built, making the emptying of the mainland storage tanks more simple.

Since this marine depot will store the radiation contaminated water for decades depending on the treatment capacity, it is possible that building of additional marine depots will be necessary. Because of this, the first marine depot should be built on such a location, where building additional depots is possible in the area.

Although this marine depot will not be completely leak-proof due to its simple ferroconcrete structure, it can be built simply and quickly in order to store millions of liters of already treated but still radiation contaminated water. It would still be a better solution than pouring it simply into the sea.

(The first version of this concept was written in September 2014.)

Liquid air carrying Skylon spaceplane

The special feature of the spaceplane’s SABRE engine is the heat exchanger, which cools the intake air by using the low temperature of the stored liquid hydrogen. This could be a real turning point in space exploration, not because it makes launching satellites into orbit cheaper, but because the working principle of the SABRE engine creates a new opportunity.

Deep space exploration actually depends on water. If the water supply is unlimited, everything from the oxygen supply of astronauts through crop production to radiation protection can be assured, not to mention that fuel is also available for the rocket or ion engines. However, since humanity has neither asteroid mines nor colonies on other planets and moons, therefore, water supply can currently only be provided from Earth.

To do this, a Skylon spaceplane would be needed which is much smaller in size and can’t carry a satellite or any similar payload mass at all, that is, this version of the Skylon spaceplane would not have a payload bay. Instead, it would have a secondary liquid hydrogen tank, and along with it the spaceplane could carry more liquid hydrogen than it needs to reach the orbit around the Earth.

The secondary liquid hydrogen tank would be small in size, and to take off and reach a height of a few kilometers, the spaceplane would first consume the liquid hydrogen from this smaller tank, completely emptying it.

Then, passing through the atmosphere, the spaceplane would fill the empty secondary liquid hydrogen tank with continuously produced liquid air. Since, for example, at -140 degrees Celsius only 32 atmospheric pressure is enough to liquefy the intake air, the liquid air can easily be produced during in-flight.

Of course, leaving the atmosphere, the spaceplane would reach the orbit around the Earth by using the liquid oxygen from its liquid oxygen tank.

Thereby, after reaching the orbit around the Earth, some liquid hydrogen will still remain in the spaceplane's primary liquid hydrogen tank, and it would have liquid air in the secondary liquid hydrogen tank. That is, practically the payload mass that this spaceplane carries will be the unused liquid hydrogen and the created liquid air, which can then be used by space operation as desired, as supply of oxygen, water or even fuel.

The nitrogen content of the liquid air can also be useful, because, for example, it is ideal as a fuel for robots like CIMON. Releasing high-pressure nitrogen gas through their maneuvering nozzles, such robots could be ideal for external repairs at space stations. 

Shell modules:

If it is possible to transport liquid air into space on a regular basis, for example for a space station such as the International Space Station (ISS), it would be worthwhile not to store the nitrogen in a liquid state in a cryogenic storage tank, but rather in other way that exploits the possibilities of the huge amounts of available nitrogen.

The Bigelow Aerospace has developed an expandable space station module, which allows modules with much larger living space or cargo space to be used in space compared to traditional modules. Using the materials of this expandable module for development, to almost every traditional space station module an extra shell module filled with nitrogen gas could be attached.

The diameter of the shell modules can be multiple compared to the traditional module, and each shell module would be sized to accommodate a selected traditional module. The middle of the shell modules, where the traditional modules are placed, would be empty, that is, the shell modules would be sized for fit like a suit.

The inner structure of the cylindrical shell modules would be divided into cells with an edge length of half meter, and each cell would be connected with valves that can be remote controlled separately.

When installing a shell module, first the cells along the outer wall of the shell module would be blown with nitrogen gas. The traditional module would then be inserted into the center of the cylindrical shell module and secured with straps. After that, the cells of the shell module would be blown in a row, moving inwards, until finally, by blowing the innermost cells, the shell module would fully adhere to the outer surface of the traditional module. The pressure of the nitrogen gas in the cells of the shell modules would be about three times more than the atmospheric pressure.

The shell modules would not interfere with the interconnection of the traditional modules, however, of course an observatory module would not get a shell module.

Benefits of the shell modules:

When a space debris impacts into a space station module, no matter how small it is, it is sure it will punch through the module because of the extreme speed difference.

The shell module will still not absorb this impact, but since the nitrogen gas pressure is higher than the air pressure in the traditional module, first the nitrogen gas will be ejected through the resulting holes, through the inner holes inwards into the traditional module, and through the outer holes outwards into the space.

Depending on the diameter of the holes and how many nitrogen gas cells are damaged by the impact, a few extra seconds or even a few extra minutes may be available for the astronauts to take action before the air of the traditional module begins to eject into space.

Since the nitrogen gas does not feed the fires, and with the oxygen it can be inhaled, therefore, the nitrogen gas is perhaps the least dangerous for the astronauts, but nonetheless the rate of the nitrogen gas in the air should not be too high because it causes suffocation then death, therefore, in any case, the first thing for astronauts would be putting on an emergency oxygen mask.

Developing an exterior repair robot similar to CIMON would be worthwhile, which is much larger in size and developed specifically for the space environment. Such repair robots can be on standby at all times, reach the point of an impact in a minute, easily find the holes in the outer surface of the shell module by looking at the ejecting gases, and then, depending on the size of the holes, patch them immediately, even completely prevent the escape of the air from the traditional module.

The expandable space module developed by Bigelow Aerospace has a multi-layer wall specifically designed for the harsh space conditions, which allows, among other things, the use of the nitrogen gas stored in the shell module as an additional thermal insulation layer. The nitrogen gas can be continuously maintained at a given temperature of about twenty degrees Celsius, either by radiators built into the inner surface of the shell module wall, or by a central device and the continuous flow of the nitrogen gas between the cells.

Thus, no matter how small the holes in the wall caused by the impact of a space debris, due to the difference of almost three hundred degrees Celsius between the escaping nitrogen gas and space, it will look like a volcanic eruption in an infrared camera.

(The first version of this concept was written in May 2020.)

Co-author: Joshua Swindell

Japanese globe-trotting restaurant

A hybrid airship designed explicitly for freight transport can carry numberless things as its external load attached to the bottom of its structure, even the kitchen of a traditional Japanese restaurant. This kitchen transported by the hybrid airship would be a mobile building, therefore there is no need of rebuilding and refurnishing it upon the arrival and there is also no need of unforming it before the next transport.

The kitchen could function almost immediately after placing it on the ground, and it would be the capacity to serve those interested in Japanese cuisine at large open-air events, like festivals that host tens of thousands of visitors.

At the locations of the events, the mobile kitchen transported by the hybrid airship would be placed where it can be attached to the local water, sewage and electric system.

Besides the mobile building of the restaurant kitchen, countless services vehicles would be required for putting the kitchen in operation and for the continuous cooking. These vehicles would be for example articulated trucks with refrigerated semi-trailers for foods and beverages, lorries for the storage of different consumables and other equipment, caravans for providing rest to the staff, and a truck with a containerized mobile water purification system.

The hybrid airship would transport the mobile kitchen in the air from one venue to the other, while the staff would follow it to the new venue on public roads. After placing the mobile kitchen onto its location, the box body semi-trailers functioning as storage rooms and the refrigerated semi-trailers would be attached to the loading dock doors of the mobile kitchen. As a result of this, getting access to the food stored in the refrigerated semi-trailers would be as if the cooling chambers were actually parts of the mobile kitchen.

The mobile kitchen would arrive on its own stands, which would be at least two meters high and would function as a frame. The height of these stands would be individually adjustable in order to compensate for the various heights of the ground.

At the event venues, a high-capacity dining tent would be installed next to the mobile kitchen, but the uniqueness of this globe-trotting Japanese restaurant would be that it could cover a venue with an area of multiple square kilometers by transporting food via drones.

Further functions of the hybrid airship:

The hybrid airship would not only function as a freighter, it would provide surface for advertisements as well. Its fuselage would be decorated with the national symbols of Japan, for example with the national flag, and it would advertise the restaurant with its name and its mascot at the same time.

After the hybrid airship places the mobile kitchen to its location at an event venue, it would pick up a communicational container delivered by a truck. This communication container would be able to provide Wi-Fi to the visitors of the given event. The energy supply of the communication container would be provided by generators attached to the turboprop engines of the hybrid airship.

The free Wi-Fi of the event venue provided by the hybrid airship would not only create a further place for advertisements, but at the same time it would provide the possibility of food order from the whole area of the event venue. Furthermore, it would also provide the communication system for controlling the drones (e.g. quadcopters) used for delivering the food.

Food order and drone delivery:

At the event venues depending on the expected number of visitors and on the area size of the venue, even a dozen of food vending machines would be placed. These circular structure large vending machines would have many lockable storage lockers. And there would be a small drone landing platform on top of them.

These vending machines would be equipped with robotic arms capable of grabbing and moving the standardized delivery boxes between a landed drone and the storage lockers.

In order to display menus and for processing orders via electronic payment methods, several large-sized screens would be installed onto the sides of the vending machines. Around the vending machines dining tables and benches would be placed.

Every vending machine would have an individual identification number that could be recognized from a large distance, thus the food ordering could be done by smartphones from the whole area of the venue, requesting the delivery to a given vending machine.

With the help of the touch-screens on the sides of the vending machines, even video calls with the restaurant would be possible, and there would always be an expert on duty, who could solve any malfunction even if going to a vending machine is required.

The drones used for food transport would be powered by electricity, and there would be a sufficient amount of them to provide a prompt service in spite of the drones’ continuous need of charge.


The mobile kitchen of the Japanese restaurant could have large size and significant amount of capacity because of the possibility of hybrid airship transport. As a result of this, it could meet the needs of the visitors even at the largest open-air events, making them familiar with the flavours of the high quality Japanese cuisine.

Furthermore, the mobile kitchen is not only for different open-air events. It could be also placed in smaller or even in larger cities, where the vending machines could be placed in the most visited city parks and public squares. Pedestrian streets with cafes and restaurants are also visited by a lot of people, so that these would also be possible locations.

In conclusion, the only restriction for the globe-trotting can be the local regulations concerning drones.

(The first version of this concept was written in April 2015.)


There are tens of thousands of indoor and outdoor shooting ranges in the world, where shooting is practiced on a wide range of targets, but I think it would be worth using smart targets to expand the training possibilities further.

The Gunslingers would be a separate app that anyone could install on a smartphone. The app could connect to this smart target, making it possible to play a game in an Old West gunfight. The player must defeat ten gunslingers in the game, who would become more and more difficult opponents.

Simplified structural diagram of the smart target:

1. The structure of the smart target can be different sizes, but the most common size would be the human size. The frame of the smart target would not be bulletproof, because the players can only use rubber bullets.

2. Two pairs of light curtain sensors would be integrated into the frame, which sensitivity would be adjusted to the size of the projectiles. One of the sensor pairs would be vertically embedded, so when a projectile crosses one of the light beams, the height of the hit can be stated.

3. The other pair of sensors would be horizontally embedded, so the location of the hit can be precisely specified in millimeters from the data obtained by the two sensor pairs.

4. Pedestal for placement. If it is equipped on a remote controlled electric vehicle, which could always rotate the smart target in the direction of the shooter, it would be ideal training with moving targets.

5. Roof structure, which would also serve as a protection against weather in outdoor shooting ranges.

On the front of the roof a LED light line would be embedded which would be perfectly visible even in strong sunshine. This LED light line could help in many ways, for example, green light and red light to indicate whether the shooters could shoot freely or not.

Multiple types of traditional targets, such as paper, cardboard or even sheet metal could be attached to the smart target. For example, the metal rod of a paper roll could be attached to the bottom of the roof. So the targeting can also be done to the graphical targets, and a LED lamp would be embedded at the bottom of the roof to illuminate the attached traditional target. This LED lamp can light up in multiple colors, so if the shooters overcame a target, then it could also be signaled this way.

A communication device and a smartphone-sized computer would be integrated in the roof, which would be controlling the smart target, and would allow continuous data connection between the smart target and the player's own smartphone via Wi-Fi.

6. Emulator to imitate the shots of the opponent. The emulator would be a device that could be used only with blank cartridges, and for safety reasons it could only fire towards the ground. The simplest version of the emulator would use blank pistol cartridges, which could be loaded from a larger capacity magazine.

7. A high brightness rating projector capable of projecting an image or video on the traditional target attached to the smart target. Thus, a wide range of targets could be projected on a white paper or a white painted metal plate.

Operation of the smart target:

The projector would project the video of the current opponent onto a white cardboard, which is attached to the smart target. The player would stand face to face with the smart target and wait for the signal, which could be for example a bell sound, or the opponent's move when he reaches for his pistol. The signal would always come randomly, avoiding the possibility of cheating.

After the signal is done the player and the projected virtual opponent would open fire. Obviously, the player would use an Old West style pistol and the video of the opponent's would change based on the player's hits. That is, if the player's hits miss the opponent or just are not perfect, the virtual opponent can shoot several times. Each time when the opponent shot, the emulator of the smart target would use a blank cartridge to imitate the shot.

The app would calculate the hits caused by the virtual opponent, among other things, based on his skill level, and would report the results to the player. If the player wins in the gunfight, he could move on to the next, stronger opponent.


Thanks to the app's versatile development capabilities and the universal use of the smart target, the challenge for the players could be kept with continuously updated newer game modes and opponents.

And meanwhile, it could raise the interest of ordinary people for shooting ranges.

(The first version of this concept was written in February 2018.)

Star Wars Championship

Nowadays, e-sport is one of the most dynamically improving sports with an increasing number of viewers. Since Star Wars is one of the biggest brands in the world, the consumers of e-sport can be an ideal target audience for Disney.

However, instead of the current e-sport championships in which the players compete in a virtual environment, Disney should create a new type of e-sport championship in which the traditional competition would be continuously rendered, and it would be visualized as a streamable live broadcast in a virtual environment inspired by Star Wars.

As a result, the competitors and their teams would eventually match their knowledge and skills in reality, but the viewers could see this in a virtual environment visualized by a video game. The virtual environment would be provided by the EA DICE Battlefront video game series, and the first championship would be created for air fight.

The air fight championship:

The championship would require such an airport at which high-tech communication and radar technology is available and which can provide enough airspace for the secure organization of the air fights of the competition.

In the competition, teams of stunt pilots could take part with different types of prop stunt planes constructed according to the requirements of the competition. Since in Star Wars-based air fights the starfighters vary in many aspects such as speed, maneuvering ability and performance, therefore the types of stunt planes used in the competition would be so selected that their capabilities could be matched with the different kinds of starfighters from the X-wing starfighter through the Y-wing light bomber to the TIE fighter and the TIE interceptor.

A laser beam aiming and detecting system would be installed onto the stunt planes with such a punctual telemetric system that could illustrate the maneuvering of the stunt planes in the Battlefront video game environment perfectly. As a result of this, the broadcast air fight from the maneuvers of the starfighters to the work of the laser cannons would be realistic and because of that excessively enjoyable.

Since the viewers can only see the virtual environment in which anything can be the venue of the air fight from a surface of a planet to deep space, the contests between the competing teams can trend towards a diversity of tasks such as gaining air superiority, bombers flying onto overground targets and inhibiting this, VIP accompaniment and catching that, or even supporting star destroyers and destroying them by proton torpedoes.

In the VIP competitions that aim to accompany or capture the YT-1300 light freighter or even a Lambda-class shuttle, the roles of the VIPs would be filled by turboprop airplanes controlled by professional pilots according to the size and maneuvering abilities of the VIPs. The pilots would be selected randomly to each competition, so the role of the VIPs would not be filled by the competitors, but the frame crew of the competition.

The role of the star destroyer or other similar size warship would be filled by an airship with its own crew, which only had to hover in one space during these kinds of competitions. Only laser sensors would be installed onto the airship, so although in the virtual environment the visualized warship, for example a Victory-class star destroyer would use its turbolasers and ion cannons constantly, those would only serve to increase the reality of the air fight, since only the competitors could achieve hits.

The injuries and destructions of the starfighters would be generated automatically from the data provided by the laser sensors in a very spectacular method, so this would create not only a realistic air fight for the viewers, but also they could worry about the pilots. The shot-down pilots would be excluded from the live radio communication of their teams at the moment of the destruction of their starfighters, and from this moment they could only communicate with the air traffic control to organize the landing. Moreover, in such cases on the destructed stunt planes predetermined light signals would turn on to inform the still competing pilots.

Due to the visualization of the air fight in a virtual environment, the viewers can change their point of views in the broadcast according to their preferences. They can watch the competition from the perspective of their favorite pilot, from the camera above the starfighter or even from the fired proton torpedo. Moreover, the virtual environment would use the previously digitized faces of the stunt pilots. Because of that, in close maneuvering the virtual environment would be more realistic by recognisability of the pilots.

During the competition, the selected airport would set up a hangar filled with full-scale starfighter models. The interviews and the award ceremony would take place in this hangar. During the interviews and the announcement of the competition results the competing stunt pilots and the frame crew of the competition would wear Star Wars-based team uniforms decorated with the badge of their teams.

Battles on the ground:

If the air fight championship is successful, the e-sport championship of Disney could expand with ground battles. The venue of the ground battles would be a film studio, where on big stages the venues of the battles could be pre-built as scenery. Since the viewers only see the virtual environment, the scenery could even be made of unpainted wooden planks, which would be scanned in 3D in order to make a realistic visualization after placing them.

Since the viewers can only watch the competition in a virtual environment, the blasters with the laser aiming system and the special clothes equipped with dozens of sensors can be made with practical common sense, and can be used with maximum security.

The difficulty of establishing the ground battle championship is the realistic visualization of the competitors, because the movements of the competitors can be followed accurately and visualized with the help of the special competition clothes, but the emotions on the faces of the competitors cannot be visualized accurately, while in contrast with the air fights, this visualized emotions would be necessary to create a realistic representation. Because of this, the emotions of the faces would be controlled by artificial intelligence based on predetermined schemes and on the tone of their radio talks.

The advantages of the Star Wars Championship:

Since Star Wars films, series, games, comic books are released continuously, the interest of the viewers can be maintained constantly, and this championship would be ideal to expand the variety of the Disney+ streaming service.

(The first version of this concept was written in November 2015.)

B-1H Lancer

The B-1H version would be a heavily modified B-1B Lancer strategic bomber, which would be specifically designed for carrying out high-risk missions against fortified underground facilities. The B-1H would use hydrogen as fuel instead of kerosene.

Simplified structural diagram of the operation:

1. Air-intake into the jet engines.
2. Jet engines powered by hydrogen gas.
3. Thrust from the jet engines.
4. The kerosene tanks are replaced by secondary cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks.
5. Secondary liquid hydrogen supply for the heat exchanger.
6. Heat exchanger. The intake air is transformed into liquid by this device, while the liquid hydrogen would transform into gas.
7. Air-intake to the heat exchanger.
8. Hydrogen gas supply for the jet engines.
9. Liquid air to the primary cryogenic storage tank.
10. Primary cryogenic storage tank. This large tank would be integrated in one of the internal bomb bays. For safety reasons, this cryogenic storage tank could be dropped.
11. A threaded rod would be integrated longitudinally in the middle of the primary cryogenic storage tank.
12. A circular separator could rotate on the threaded rod. Thus, while the liquid hydrogen is consumed from the primary cryogenic storage tank, the emptied part of the tank can be filled by liquid air.
13. Primary liquid hydrogen supply for the heat exchanger.
14. Liquid hydrogen supply for the rocket engine.
15. Liquid air supply for the rocket engine.
16. Rocket engine. The rocket engine would be integrated into the tail of the B-1H.
17. Thrust from the rocket engine.

Simplified example of a mission:

As for the take-off, both primary and secondary cryogenic storage tanks would only be filled with liquid hydrogen.  The B-1H would take-off in a traditional way by using jet engines powered by hydrogen gas.

In the first stage of the flight, the B-1H would consume the liquid hydrogen from the primary cryogenic storage tank, and while continuously using the heat exchanger, the primary cryogenic storage tank would be partly filled with liquid air. The separator in the primary cryogenic storage tank would rotate to the other side of the tank in accordance with the consumption of liquid hydrogen.

Thanks to the creation of liquid air during the flight and the joint use of the primary cryogenic storage tank, a rocket engine can be used without any excess weight required by the storage of liquid oxygen.

In the second stage of the flight, which is reaching the enemy airspace, the B-1H would switch from the jet engines to the rocket engine. The rocket engine would use the liquid hydrogen and the liquid air from the primary cryogenic storage tank. In the enemy airspace, the B-1H would continuously increase its speed and flight altitude. The rocket engine of the B-1H would be powerful, but not much more than its four jet engines, so the speed of the B-1H would not exceed its structural ability.

On the way, by reaching the target, the B-1H would release a bunker buster (MOP) bomb. Thanks to the higher speed and flight altitude the bomb can hit the ground with greater force.

In the third stage of the flight, which is leaving the enemy airspace, the B-1H would completely drain the primary cryogenic storage tank, while slowing down the speed and reducing the flight altitude required to restart the jet engines. After the rocket engine burnout, the B-1H would switch back to the jet engines.

Since the primary cryogenic storage tank is empty, from now the B-1H would use the secondary cryogenic storage tanks. From this point the heat exchanger would not create liquid air, only the liquid hydrogen would transform to gas for the jet engines. Because with an empty primary cryogenic storage tank, without liquid air, the landing is much safer.

The benefits of the B-1H Lancer:

The first thing that long-range aircrafts from the SR-71 to the B-1B Lancer do on a mission is the air refueling. This is not possible with liquid hydrogen. With the excess weight of the heat exchanger, the rocket engine, and the cryogenic storage tanks, and without the possibility of air refueling, the armament capacity of the B-1H would be much less than of the conventional B-1B Lancer, but it would still be enough to fulfill wide variety of tasks, and the much higher flight altitude holds many possibilities.

For example, contrary to the F-15, the B-1H could launch a much larger and much heavier missile from a higher altitude, where atmospheric friction is less significant. This would also allow the launch of a smarter anti-satellite missile that does not destroy the targeted satellite on a kinetic basis and creating debris, but put a small interceptor satellite on the same orbit, which could blow it off the targeted satellite with an instant curing foam sealant that closes the maneuvering nozzles and darkens the optics.

Flying at higher altitude, where the oxygen is not enough for the conventional jet engines, interceptor aircrafts such as the MIG-31 are dangerous just because of their air-to-air missiles. However, due to the minimal humidity of the rarer atmosphere, the capabilities of a defensive weapon such as the ATHENA Laser Weapon System are also multiplied.

Thus the primary task of the B-1H would be to strike against fortified underground facilities, but it would also be ideal for a dozen other purposes.

(The first version of this concept was written in March 2018.)

Ohi Hybrid Power Plant

If a nuclear power plant with pressurized water reactors is still in good condition, but enhancing safe operation would be too costly, instead of full decommission, it would be better to modify it to other types of energy production.

Simplified structural diagram:

1. Ohi Unit 1.
2. Ohi Unit 2.
3. Reactor vessel for heat energy storage.
4. The heat energy would be stored in molten salt, like in a concentrated solar thermal power plant.
5. Electric heater units.
6. Connecting to the national power grid.
7. Reactor vessel for power generation.
8. Pressurized water.
9. Primary coolant loop.
10. Heat exchanger in which molten salt can transfer the heat energy for the pressurized water.
11. The molten salt would circulate between the two reactor vessels.
12. The power plant would be equipped with waste incineration, which could be fueled by local or imported waste.
13. Waste combustion furnaces.
14. The molten salt would be heated by waste combustion.

Benefits of the hybrid power plant:

By modifying the Units 1 and 2, a fully renewable power plant could be created, which can work even for decades, and since the power plant infrastructure already exists from the control room to the turbines, the cost of expansion could be significantly reduced.

The molten salt could be heated by surplus energy from the national power grid, and in addition, dozens of wind turbines (mostly offshore) could be connected directly. Thus, this hybrid power plant could provide a balancing role for power supply in Japan.

Although without uranium fuel elements, the pressurized water will no longer have a moderator role, thus, the primary loop could be molten salt instead of pressurized water, however, using pressurized water is less expensive because of the way the steam is generated does not need to be modified.

Since one of the reactor vessels would store the heat energy, and only one of them would produce the energy, the total energy output would be much less, but it could be completely safe.

If the technology works, it could be applicable to other nuclear power plants that await full decommission.

(The first version of this concept was written in January 2018.)

Military sensor kit

The military sensor kit would be based on the Alphabet (Google) Project Ara, because the Ara smartphone frames are ideal for versatile utilization thanks to their modular design, and the technology is already available and licensable from the Alphabet, so the development costs could remain reasonable.

The frame in the sensor kit would be based on the standardized Ara mini-frame, but this frame would be significantly different because the sensor kit frame would not have a display. Instead of it, a full-featured smartphone motherboard would be integrated on one side of the frame, with processor, memory, Bluetooth chip, battery, etc., and the other side of the frame would be reserved for the module slots.

That is, in case of the military sensor kit, not the modular design of the smartphone is the essence, but its versatile utilization through the modules. In the absence of the display, the settings of the sensor kit could be really easily configured with a conventional smartphone via Bluetooth connection.
Since the sensor kit would be primarily designed for military use, therefore, the frame and all of the modules would be waterproof and shockproof.

There would also be a significant difference between the Ara smartphones and the sensor kit, so that the sensor kit frame would never be used as a conventional handheld smartphone, so sizing of the insertable modules can be much freer, the modules may have different thicknesses and may even protrude over the frame.

In addition, it would be possible to connect various larger devices to the frame via extension cables, which makes endless possibilities of the sensor kit. An extension cable would be one meter long, at one end can be inserted to one of the slots on the frame, and at the other end a separate device or another extension cable can be connected. Thus, the sensor kit frame and the larger devices could be easily placed and camouflaged separately. As another option, a module can also be inserted into an extension cable instead of the frame, so farther away from the frame a small size sensor can easily be hidden.

The extension cables would not just be for the data transmission, but would also serve as energy distributors between the external devices and the available power sources.

Examples of the modules, which can be inserted in the frame slots:

- Slot splitter module, which can be inserted in a frame slot or an extension cable slot, creating two free slots.
- GPU module, which can increase the performance of the sensor kit for simultaneous use of multiple cameras.
- Camera modules with different sensitivity, for example to take pictures or videos.
- Speaker module, for example to play alarm tones.
- Microphone module, for example to record ambient sounds.
- RAM module, which may be necessary if large amounts of data need to be processed from the sensors.
- SSD drive module, which increases the data storage capacity.
- Different types of USB and other kinds of standardized connectors.
- Modem module with a traditional landline connector, for example to connect with lower bandwidth.
- Battery modules with different capacities, which can increase the availability time.
- GPS module for positioning.
- Wi-Fi module for higher bandwidth connection.
- SIM card module for use of the cellular networks.
- Module with different kinds of SD card readers.
- Seismic sensor module, for example to detect earthquakes.
- HDMI output, for example constantly monitoring the installed sensors.
- Module with different kinds of smartphone charger connectors.

Examples of larger separate devices, which can only be connected via extension cables to the sensor kit frame:

- Separate smartphone display, which may be useful if tests running are needed directly on the sensor kit or the connected devices, or for example, if watching directly the video feed is essential during an observation.
- External hard drive or SSD, which significantly increases the data storage capacity.
- Fixed or remote-controlled shotgun microphone, for example to the observations.
- Different sensitivity and view angle fixed or remote-controlled cameras, which could be conventional, active or passive infrared, etc.
- External power supply devices, for example solar panel, ethanol fuel cell, transformer to the local energy grid, UPS, smartphone power bank, etc.
- Motion detectors, for example with laser or infrared beams.
- Remote-controlled laser rangefinder, for example to the target distance determination.
- Remote-controlled laser designator, for example to guide bombs or missiles.
- Air pollution detectors with different sensitivity for detecting carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, various chemicals, etc.
- Very accurate GPS positioning device.
- External Wi-Fi device for long-range wireless connection.
- Ground seismic sensors, for example to detect the vehicles and humans movements.
- Radios with different transmitter power output, for example to remote controlling and the continuous data transmission.

Operation of the military sensor kit:

The military sensor kit frame could be used on its own, or even by coordinating the operation of several separate frames, which could be equipped with different sensors.

The control could be direct (e.g. via USB cable) or remote (e.g. via Wi-Fi). All military sensor kits in the control range can be controlled with the same smartphone app, only the unique identification codes of the sensor kits must be given for this.

Thus, for example, a single sensor kit would be ideal for observation, but with more than one sensor kit, it is possible to build an alarm system for the protection of a gather point or even a building.

And the possibilities of the uses are limitless.

(The first version of this concept was written in August 2018.)

Hoverbike Championship

The Hoverbike Championship would be like Formula One in the air, the competitors would circulate on a designated track, and there would also be pit stops, where kerosene and liquid oxygen could be refilled. In the Hoverbike Championship, the different aircraft manufacturers, like Boeing, Airbus, Lockheed Martin, etc. could start their own racing team and hoverbikes, and like in Formula One, there would be predetermined rules for the hoverbikes’ development.

The hoverbikes would fly at the same altitude during the race, and only two or three meters high, which their fly-by-wire system would automatically hold, so competitors could only overtake each other from the side. And hoverbikes would not have a rear main jet engine, so their maximum speed would be low, at most half that of a Formula One racing car. 

Simplified structural diagram from top view:

1. Fuselage. The hoverbike would be a small and lightweight aircraft.
2. One-person cockpit.
3. Compressor for air compression. Since the compressor sucks in the air from above, it will not suck up the dust and stones from the ground.
4. A second, counter-rotating compressor. Both compressors would be rotated by electric motors, and each compressor would have an air distribution device, that would convey the high pressure compressed air to the engines in equal proportions. Each compressor would provide air to four engines.
5. Jet engine without compressor. The hoverbike would have eight separate engines.
6. Articulated structure for directing the engine. With this structure the engine could swing from the horizontal position to a nearly vertical position in all directions, so the power of the engines can be used simultaneously to maintain the hover and maneuvering of the hoverbike. A fly-by-wire system would control all eight engines separately.
7. Structure for fixation of the engine to the fuselage.
8. Flexible feed pipe for the engine. The hoverbike would also have a cryogenic liquid oxygen tank, so the feed pipe would supply the engine with high pressure compressed air, kerosene and liquid oxygen. Since the hoverbike wouldn’t have wings, instead, it would use the power of the engines for every maneuver, by supplying liquid oxygen and extra kerosene needed, the power of each of the eight engines could be changed separately from moment to moment, which can provide extraordinary maneuverability for the hoverbike.

Simplified structural diagram about the jet engine:

1. Since the compressor would be separated from the engine, the structure of the engine could be wider but shorter compared to a conventional jet engine.
2. The articulated structure.
3. Combustion chamber.
4. Exhaust.
5. Turbine.
6. Generator. Each turbine of the eight engines would be connected to an own, separate generator, which would provide the necessary energy for the electric motors of the compressors. Although the eight generators of the engines and the two electric motors of the compressors would significantly increase the weight of the hoverbike, thereby the airflow for air supply of the engines can be steady regardless of the maneuvering of the hoverbike.
7. Connection point for the feed pipe.
8. Kerosene supply.
9. High pressure compressed air supply.
10. Liquid oxygen supply.

Safety solutions for the jet engines:

As in Formula One, each engine would be secured with one or two chains to the fuselage of the hoverbike, preventing them falling off by an accident.

Each engine would be equipped with a small but high-pressure fire extinguisher tank and a valve, directly connected to the feed pipe. In case of an accident, the valve would shut off the feed pipe coming from the fuselage of the hoverbike, while the fire extinguishing material, such as carbon dioxide would blow under high pressure into all three fuel supply pipes (kerosene, compressed air and liquid oxygen). Thereby, the fire extinguishing material will blow out the fuel from the supply pipes and at the same time extinguish the fire in the combustion chamber.

Each engine would be completely covered by a metal net frame, including the bottom of the exhaust, which frame would be strong enough to catch the blades that could fly apart from the turbine in case of a collision with another hoverbike.

Because the turbine does not rotate a compressor in the engines, but a generator, each generator can be equipped with a strong emergency brake that stops the rotation of both the generator and the turbine in case of an accident.

Safety solutions for using the liquid oxygen:

Since the maximum speed of the hoverbikes during a race will be low compared to Formula One cars or any aircrafts, the risk in a collision is mainly due to the liquid oxygen. Therefore, the liquid oxygen tank would have an own emergency system, which would be an automatic system that in case of an accident could launch the liquid oxygen tank like an ejection seat does. The use of this automatic emergency system would depend on the force of the collision, which would be monitored by sensors.

Although skip the refueling in the races would make the Hoverbike Championship safer, this is not possible, because without buoyancy, relying only on the thrust of the jet engines, the hoverbikes need to be very lightweight, thus, both their fuel capacity and range will be very low. Therefore, refueling in the pit stop would be executed by two remote-controlled robot arms, one for the kerosene and one for the liquid oxygen.

Benefits of the Hoverbike Championship:

The air travel is continuously evolving and expanding from traditional aircrafts to electric air taxis, but unlike cars, due to much higher power demand for the fully electric operation allows only very limited capacity and range, so the conventional kerosene-consuming aircrafts will not have a real electric alternative even in decades.

However, I think that with this type of Hoverbike Championship, it would be possible to maximize the potential of the conventional jet engines, and at the same time continuously improve the components of the fully electric aircrafts.

(The first version of this concept was written in February 2018.)

PCI card to Nokia smartphones

In my opinion, it can be calmly stated that those part of the Earth’s population, which has the sufficient funds and the demand for the usage, has already purchased some kind of a smartphone. Because of this, when consumers change their smartphones, companies like HMD Global can only increase their own market share against the other manufacturers.

And since consumers encounter a great variety of offers regardless of their financial possibilities when they change their old smartphones, so for hardware manufacturers like HMD Global marking out from the mass is incredibly difficult. In addition, without an Apple-like own software environment and cloud services, keeping the extant consumers through brand loyalty is also nearly impossible.

Nevertheless, the brand loyalty can be increased, if HMD Global produces multipurpose smartphones, because after getting rid of these smartphones, the post-change fate of those can also get into the decision-making process of the consumers.

The PCI card:

By installing a new type of standardized connector into Nokia smartphones, those would be able to function in traditional personal computers, by placing them into cards functioning as a case and equipped with a PCI data bus.

Attached to the PCI card by a short wire, every type of Nokia smartphone equipped with this new type of connector could be placed into this type of PCI card, since the case part of the PCI card would be suitable for fixing smartphones of different size stably. Apart from the stable lock, it would also provide continuous cooling with the help of a fan installed onto the case.

While the PCI data bus would provide the continuous energy- and data connection between the personal computer and the smartphone, the new type of connector between the smartphone and the PCI card would also provide several other connections, from antenna to stereo sound. The reason for this is the following, to install everything into the rear console of the PCI card, that makes the use of the smartphone independent from the personal computer without opening the casing of the personal computer.

The following things can be installed into the rear console of the PCI card:

- GSM, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth antenna
- One or more SIM card reader
- Different types of USB and other kinds of standardized connectors
- Different kinds of SD card readers
- Connector to a traditional landline
- Sound out- and input and a separate microphone input
- HDMI output
- UTP connector for a network cable
- Connector suitable for plugging in the standardized charger of the smartphone

Smartphone in the personal computer:

After installing the specially developed Nokia software containing the required drivers, the smartphone could be controlled through the operating system of the personal computer. The Nokia smartphone placed into the PCI card runs its own operating system and it is able to operate from its own battery after turning off the personal computer.

Since the energy charge could continuously be provided for the smartphone through its own charger, even if the personal computer is turned off, the symbiosis of the personal computer and the Nokia smartphone opens a vast amount of possibilities.

Examples of the usage:

The smartphone can function as a Wi-Fi Hotspot 24/7 owing to the external antenna on the rear console of the PCI card.

Through the SIM cards, the smartphone can still be used as a phone, either by using a headphone and a microphone, or by using a traditional landline phone. By having Internet subscription and supplemented with a webcam, a continuous video call is possible without using the resources of the personal computer. This makes the operation of the video call software possible in a small window without causing FPS (frame per second) decrease in the program that runs on the personal computer, even when someone is playing the most graphically demanding video games. Implicitly the smartphone could also function as a voicemail owing to the fact that the smartphone is continuously operable.

The smartphone can be ideal for controlling downloads from the Internet based on the user settings, since after turning off the personal computer, data can still be uploaded to or downloaded from the Internet by using the internal storage capacity of the smartphone.

If the personal computer is connected to the Internet via the smartphone, then the Nokia smartphone can be used as a firewall, thanks to its operating system functioning independently from the personal computer. For the same reason, running an antivirus program as a background process is much more ideal on the smartphone, and since scanning of the files would not use the personal computer’s computation capacity, it can be much more thorough.

Since short blackouts are not dangers to the operation of the smartphone, it can be ideal for storing backups, which can be continuous in case of word processors and other kinds of office programs by saving every bit of change immediately.

The continuous control of the home security system through radio signals or wires. Compression and saving of the incoming data from different cameras and sensors based on the user’s settings. Another option can be that after turning on the personal computer, the already stored data can be moved to the hard disk drive of the personal computer, which has a much bigger capacity. This would make data keeping possible not only for days or weeks, but for longer periods of time as well.

Listening to music in the background, or through the HDMI output watching videos or television channels on monitor or on television. Since the television connected to the smartphone becomes a smart TV, it can play any audio format and video files, and the Netflix and other streaming services are also available on it. Controlling this is possible not only by the personal computer but also by all kinds of smartphones through Wi-Fi or Bluetooth with the help of an application developed for this purpose.

The content of the personal computer’s memory can be copied into the internal storage of the smartphone, before turning the personal computer into sleep mode. Because of this, turning into sleep mode can be really complete, not only energy efficient.

Compatible programs installed onto the personal computer and onto the smartphone can be run on the smartphone, thus for example files can be compressed and videos can be rendered without using the resources of the personal computer. A new option can appear in the Windows Explorer’s menu in order to run a compatible program on the smartphone.

The smartphone can be used as a continuously operating e-mail server, but this kind of usage can also be aimed at storing an own website or at file sharing.

A Nokia virtual assistant can run on the smartphone continuously without using the resources of the personal computer. This can appear on the screen of the personal computer whenever it is necessary. The skills of this virtual assistant can be continuously developed. In the beginning, it could deal with the essential notifications, for example arrivals of new emails and finishing of copying, so it would not require a multiannual initial development, but over the years, it could catch up with Cortana, Siri or Alexa by continuous developments.

The smartphone can function as a dongle, or as a constant encoder and decoder device. Owing to this, data stored in the personal computer could be partly or totally coded strongly, thus reducing the possibility of unauthorized access to the personal data.

And also for a dozen other purposes.

(The first version of this concept was written in September 2019.)

Water supply of deep space missions

The continuous supply of water is an essential factor of space missions since water is consumed by astronauts and they use it for other purposes too. These can be for example growing plants in space and protection against cosmic radiation. Water can be demolished into oxygen and hydrogen by electrolysis to provide the continuous oxygen supply of the astronauts while hydrogen can be used as refrigerant, for energy production in fuel cells or in ion engines as fuel. Furthermore, burned with oxygen, hydrogen can provide powerful thrust in rocket engines as well.

However, water supply to space missions as a payload mass of current carrier rockets is too expensive for the universal use of water in a large quantity. Because of this, a C-5M Super Galaxy transport aircraft should be transformed in a research and development program so that a railgun would be installed into the aircraft with the supercapacitors providing power for firing.

Charging the supercapacitors would be provided by separate generators attachable to the aircraft’ jet engines. As a result of this, after shooting with the railgun, the aircraft do not have to land, since the supercapacitors are rechargeable during circulation at a high altitude.

The railgun could launch such a solid-propellant rocket from the modified nose of the aircraft, which is capable of putting tens of kilograms of payload mass into low Earth orbit. These water carrying rockets could be small, simple and inexpensive ballistic rockets, without an own guidance system. After spending a short period of time in space, these would burn while returning into the Earth’s atmosphere, but before this could happen, a satellite designed specifically for this purpose would catch and drain these rockets on the low Earth orbit, with the help of its robotic arm.

This catching satellite would be able to maneuver by electrolysis of the drained water, using the oxygen and the hydrogen as rocket propellant, whether it's catching these rockets moving on a ballistic orbit, docking to the International Space Station (ISS), or about reaching the escape velocity and moving on the lunar orbit to the Lunar Orbital Platform-Gateway (LOP-G).

The catching satellite could collect water from the rockets for months on the low Earth orbit, before transporting it to the ISS or to the LOP-G.

The C-5M Super Galaxy with its huge load capacity and cargo area would be ideal for carrying the railgun, which would be a much more ideal solution than launching rockets from the Earth’s surface. Because the C-5M would launch the rockets from a high altitude, the lower resistance of the rarer atmosphere and the acceleration provided by the railgun would give the rockets a multiple Mach initial speed, and plus the speed of the launched rockets would be increased with the speed of the aircraft.

Since the catching satellite will orbit around the Earth about every ninety minutes waiting for newer and newer water carrying rockets, a rocket can be launched from the aircraft for each circle of the catching satellite. The periods between launching could be used for charging the supercapacitors. The efficiency can be maximized, if the crew on the aircraft is shift working, the fuel of the aircraft is refillable from a tanker aircraft, in the cargo area of the aircraft even a dozen rockets can be placed securely, and the launching with the railgun do not require immediate maintenance.

(The first version of this concept was written in January 2016.)

Deployable observer and radio transmission drone

Nowadays, warfare is based on communication capabilities that make the use of specialized ability units possible in coordinated ways, and among other things, gathering information for decision making. So drones with observational and communication capabilities have become a significant part of modern warfare.

This type of drone would basically be a remote-controlled electric helicopter, which could be launched from below an aircraft wing, thanks to its foldable structure, for example using the universal underwing pylon of the C-130 Hercules.

This kind of drone would work on the ground, the helicopter mode should only be for deploying.

Simplified structural diagram:

1. The body of the drone would consist of two main parts, this lower part would contain the batteries. Thus the drone’s center of gravity will be low, which is important for its stability.
2. The upper main part of the body would include the communication and control subunits, the radios, the GPS receiver, the flight control computer, etc.
3. Each main part of the body would be covered with highly efficient solar panels, which could produce enough energy to keep the observation and communication equipment running continuously round-the-clock.
4. Optical and infrared cameras in a head unit which could rotate in all directions.
5. Telescopic structure to lift the head unit up to several meters. Thus, the field of vision can be dramatically increased.
6. Fixing and damping mechanism for the landing skids.
7. Electric wrist assemblies for lowering the landing skids.
8. Landing skids for the landing and for the stable horizontal positioning on the ground.
9. In terms of width and length, the size of the landing skids would be aligned to the lower main part of the body of the drone, since originally it would be folded.
10. Between the lower and upper main part of the body of the drone would be a connecting element, which also serving as a rotor. This rotor is driven by an electric motor.
11. Electric wrist assemblies for lowering two rotor blades.
12. Rotor blades. The rotor blades would not be only used in flying, but after the drone is on the ground, placing them in vertical pose the rotor blades could operate as separate wind turbine blades, helping to recharge the batteries.
13. In terms of width and length, the size of the rotor blades would be aligned to the upper main part of the body of the drone, since originally it would be folded.
14. Between the upper main part of the body of the drone and the telescopic structure would be a connecting element serving also as a rotor. This rotor would be rotated in the opposite direction by another electric motor.
15. Electric wrist assemblies for lifting two rotor blades.
16. Rotor blades.
17. The drone would have four rotor blades in total, two of them movable downwards, two of them movable upwards for the helicopter mode to be switched on.

Operation of the drones:

These drones can be deployed on higher urban buildings or hilltops, along major roads or smuggler paths, in a designated borderline, around a military camp, etc.

Since the drones can be launched from aircrafts, they can be deployed quickly in large areas at large numbers. And in case of not needing them any more, the soldiers do not have to go to collect them individually, because if their batteries are fully recharged, the drones can fly to a nearby secured collection point.

These drones would be particularly suitable for improving radio communication in operational areas, also observing and marking targets, while reducing the risk of unexpected surprises, such as enemy reinforcement.

(The first version of this concept was written in June 2018.)

Firefighting airship

At residential areas without an unlimited supply of water to extinguish fire, or at unoccupied areas without proper infrastructure, extinguishing extensive bush and forest fire is often an unsolvable task, because the opportunities of the delivery of the extinguishing material to the target location are always limited, independently of the number of the available tanker trucks or firefighting aircrafts.

The modern version of the legendary, ocean liner-sized Graf Zeppelin filled with helium instead of hydrogen would also be capable of transporting extinguishing material, because its payload capacity is similar to firefighting aircrafts. However, because of its significantly lower airspeed, it would be able to carry out turns too slowly.

Nevertheless, the airships’ ability of hovering at one place makes the on-the-spot creation of the extinguishing material possible instead of transporting those to the fires.

This new type of firefighting airship, which could have the length of three hundred meters, would have the shape of a pipe instead of the shape of a cigar, so that continuous airflow would be possible through the air channel in the middle of the airship, which can be up to fifty meters wide. Since the airship does not need the ability to carry payload, and could be controlled only remotely with a ground-based controller, the structural design of the helium containing balloons is not so limited. Because of this, the pipe shape of the airship could be achieved by joining a dozen ring-shaped helium balloons.

Every ring-shaped helium balloon would have a separate pressure-proof container, in which some of the helium can be stored in compressed form. Because of this, the lifting power of the front and rear part of the airship could be altered independently and differently. Owing to this, when the airship is above the fire, it could change from horizontal flying to vertical flying without the continuous usage of the numerous external turboprop engines installed on the airship’s fuselage. Consequently, the fuel consumption of the airship can be minimalized, because the rotatable turboprop engines would only have to balance the power of the wind, keeping the airship at a given place.

In case of vertical flying, due to the differences in atmospheric pressure and temperature, like in a solar updraft tower, the air will flow in the air channel, which runs through in the fuselage of the airship along its length. This will make continuous energy production possible with one or more turbines installed in the air channel.

On the surface of the fuselage of the airship, a strip of solar panels would be installed along its length. By rotating the airship in case of vertical flying, these solar panels would follow the Sun’s movement, making extra energy production possible during daytime.

Although the efficiency of the energy production, compared to an almost one kilometer high solar tower equipped with a greenhouse, would be only a fraction, but the produced energy would be enough to make water from the air with a high performance atmospheric water generator. Implicitly, the airship would use the continuously produced water to extinguish fire, releasing that as rain above the fire.


Although this type of firefighting airship will not make the quick and efficient extinguishing of extensive bush and forest fires possible, but it will allow that by constantly watering a smaller area or a designated borderline, the fire would avoid certain places, making the survival of the fleeing people easier.

(The first version of this concept was written in January 2020.)

Battlefield short text messaging system

This system would be a supplementary communication network that would serve to minimize the traditional radio usage, since the constant use of traditional radios quickly drains their batteries, and replacing or recharging those could be very difficult in the battlefield.

And there are plenty of situations that require fast and secure communication within a distance of several kilometers when instead of speech, text message transfer is sufficient.

The supplementary communication network would be based on CW grenades. The CW grenade would be a smoke grenade size radio that would be specifically designed for battlefield conditions, and capable of receiving and transmitting continuous wave signals (like Morse code). Since the technology on which it is based already exists (for example the goTenna), the development costs could be reasonable.

Simplified diagram about the CW grenade:

1. The shell of the CW grenade would be waterproof and shockproof. It would consist of two main parts, which could be rotated on each other.
Rotating clockwise the upper part would turn on the CW grenade. Rotating in the opposite direction would turn off the CW grenade, and further rotating the CW grenade can be disassembled for battery change.
2. The power supply will be provided by four rechargeable AA batteries.
3. The radio would be installed in the upper part of the CW grenade.
4. The top of the CW grenade would be fully rotatable so that the operating frequency could be selected. On the top of the CW grenade, like an hour's dial, there would be sixty line markings, and each marking would be a different frequency number. That is, the CW grenade would not have a digital display and various adjustment buttons, for making it even simpler and cheaper.
5. Safety pin to prevent accidental frequency change.
6. Very small folding handle in which a cord or a carabiner could be inserted, thus the CW grenades can easily be carried on tactical vests, or can be placed on combat vehicles and different landmarks, for example on tree branches. 

Operation of the communication network:

The CW grenade would be designed for working in a network, which could contain various smart devices. Writing and reading messages would be done on smart devices connected to the CW grenades via radios. These smart devices could be secure, waterproof, shockproof and high battery capacity smartphones, laptops or similar smart devices.

That is, a CW grenade would serve simultaneously for sending messages, and receiving targeted messages from other CW grenades, and as an automatic signal amplifier for transmitting messages between the CW grenades, but the messages would be handled through an app, that could be installed on any smart device which can be connected to the soldier's traditional handheld radio.

In its automatic signal amplifier function, the CW grenade would not amplify the incoming signal, but would recognize the transmitted messages and resend them, so the transmitted signal would be strong and noiseless again. And since each message would have its own unique identification number, the CW grenades would not send the once already transmitted  messages again.

Every soldier would have an own tactical smartphone and at least one CW grenade. To send a message, one of the soldiers would use the smartphone app to write the message. To ease the use, the smartphone could be fixed to the forearm of the soldier. The message would be a short text message like an SMS. The app would encrypt the message, add a unique message identification number, the sender's own identification number and the recipient's own identification number, and then send it to the CW grenade via the soldier’s traditional handheld radio.

The CW grenade using its own radio will send the encrypted text message as CW signal. All CW grenades that operate at the same frequency and detect the signal will automatically recognize the identifier numbers from the signal, and if the smartphone with the recipient's identifier number is connected, then the message will be forwarded to the recipient's smartphone in which the app can decrypt and display the message.

The usefulness of this network is that no matter how many CW grenades should be used as an amplifier between the sender and the recipient. And the soldiers can carry more CW grenades, which can be placed on the battlefield. Thanks to the durability of the CW grenades, there is no need to be careful when placing them, it can even be thrown on tops of trees and buildings, and these CW grenades can be left behind as a consumable device.

Because the CW grenades would be set to the same frequency as soldiers' own handheld radios, sending simple text messages through CW grenades instead of talking would be a very energy efficient way to communicate dozens or even hundreds of kilometers.

In addition, one of the sixty available frequencies on the CW grenade could be labeled as an emergency frequency, and equipped with external antennas and solar panels, the CW grenades set to the same frequency can be placed in permanent locations, from mountain tops to safe houses, creating an always available backup communication network in places like Afghanistan. The acceptable identification numbers could be pre-programmed into the placed CW grenades to prevent network overload by unauthorized use.

(The first version of this concept was written in July 2018.)